Rheumatoid arthritis criteria acr, RESEARCH ARTICLE
This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Patients with systemic sclerosis are at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Objective: This study assessed the personality and psychopathological characteristics of scleroderma patients. Participants completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Demographical and clinical data were also collected.
Additionally, they achieved moderate scores on Scales 5 and 0.
The Scale 7 was elevated only in females with rheumatoid arthritis distinctively. Conclusion: High scores on Scales 1, 2 and 3 may reflect the severe somatic symptoms of systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritisbut may also refer to the disease-related emotional distress, anxiety and depression. Likewise, social withdrawal and less feminine interests may be the results of the chronic and disabling illness.
The minor differences between the patient groups indicate that females with systemic sclerosis may be less vulnerable to specific anxiety disorders obsessive-compulsive disorders, phobias. Study results highlight the importance of developing psychosocial interventions designed to meet the needs of scleroderma patients. Like other systemic autoimmune diseases, SSc is characterized by a multifactorial etiology, predominant female prevalence female: male ratio isprogressive and unpredictable course of disease, and diversity of clinical manifestations.
Typical disease onset is between 30 and 50 years of age. Besides the autoimmune phenomena, central characteristics of SSc include vasculopathy and fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, which cause cold-induced Raynaud phenomenon and skin thickening. Furthermore, the disease may involve several inner organs, particularly the lungs, heart and kidneys, which may a fazett ízületek osteoarthritis to poorer prognosis.
Scleroderma patients often experience severe pain, fatigue, musculoskeletal disability and disfigurement.
Personality and Psychopathology in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis
In addition to physical symptoms, SSc patients are susceptible to psychological distress and internalizing psychiatric disorders.
Prevalence estimates range between 36 percent and 65 percent for depression [ 2 ] and between 19 percent and 64 percent for anxiety [ 34 ], percentages which considerably exceed those of the general population.
In a comparative study scleroderma patients reported even more depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression scale, than rheumatoid arthritis RA patients, although analysing the scores on cognitive-affective items separately, no statistical difference was found between RA and SSc patients [ 5 ]. The great variability in reported prevalence rates of depression and anxiety was attributed to methodological issues [ 2 ], because it may derive from comparisons of studies using different measurement methods, the overlap between symptoms of SSc and somatic symptoms of depression involved in certain questionnaires, and the different populations sampled differences in age, gender, disease severity, etc.
Moreover, pathogenesis of anxiety and depression is also uncertain. They may be primary psychiatric conditions, or iatrogenically-induced illnesses e. Studies assessing correlates of depression and anxiety have provided inconsistent results regarding gender, age, marital status, educational level, severity and subset limited or diffuse SSc of the disease and organ involvement.
They have, however, an established relationship with pain [ 67 ], functional status [ 58 ] and fatigue [ 69 ], because patients with worse functional status, or experiencing higher levels of pain or fatigue, tend to report more symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Moreover, depression and anxiety are associated with impaired quality of life [ 510 ]. Studies investigating the personality of SSc patients in relation to psychological adjustment have focused on certain aspects of personality. Scleroderma may cause changes in appearance, and skin deformities appear to be one of the strongest stressors in the life of patients [ 11 ].
SSc is associated with decreased appearance self-esteem, particularly in female patients, regardless of the objective extent of skin involvement and most coping styles [ 12 ]. Low appearance self-esteem and high body image dissatisfaction are related to psychological distress [ 1213 ]. Certain aspects of personality e.
Acceptance of the condition [ 12 ], use of humor as a coping strategy [ 15 ], relative optimism [ 11 ], rheumatoid arthritis criteria acr relationships, and valuing social support [ 6 ] may improve quality of life in SSc patients. Previous studies have evaluated mainly the internalizing disorders and certain personality characteristics associated to SSc. The aim of this study was to explore the mental health of SSc patients taking into consideration the following viewpoints: 1 obtaining a complex psychopathological profile; 2 using a valid and wildly used clinical measurement method; and 3 comparing SSc patients to another patient group.
SSc patients were compared to healthy persons and patients with another inflammatory rheumatic disease, rheumatoid arthritis RA.
RA was used for comparison because it shares many similarities with SSc e. We included RA and SSc in-patients undergoing their routine medical check-up in the clinic.
Age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited from the community. Participants were contacted by undergraduate students of a Personality Psychology course.
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Rheumatoid arthritis criteria acr were offered extra course credits. Sixty-five females met these criteria and agreed to participate in this study information on refusal rate was rheumatoid arthritis criteria acr available.
After giving information about the aim of the study, written informed consent was obtained from all of the respondents. Participants did not receive any payment or compensation.
ACR diagnostic criteria for Rheumatoid Arthritis
The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee of the University of Pécs and was performed in accordance with the Helsinki declaration. Consequently, the final sample consisted of 50 females with RA and 72 females with SSc. Nine of the 65 healthy female volunteers were rejected because of közös kezelés víz data or invalid profiles, leaving 56 persons for the analysis.
Socio-demographics of the healthy and patient groups are presented in Table 1. There were no significant differences in age, years of education, and marital status across the three groups of subjects. The mean age was The mean years of education was The majority of participants SSc: Table 1.
Demographics of healthy control group and patients with rheumatoid arthritis RA and systemic sclerosis SSc. Healthy controls.